The long-term temperature objective of the Paris Agreement is to keep the global average temperature rise well below 2°C (3.6°F) above pre-industrial levels; and continue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C (2.7°F), which will significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change. This should be done by reducing emissions as quickly as possible in order to „achieve, in the second half of the twenty-first century, a balance between anthropogenic emissions from sources and greenhouse gas reductions from sinks“. It also aims to increase the parties` ability to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and to „reconcile financial flows with a path towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development“. Outside of formal government negotiations, countries, cities and regions, businesses and members of civil society around the world are taking steps to accelerate climate change cooperatively to support the Paris Agreement as part of the Global Climate Agenda. The probability of achieving a specific temperature target was also a point of discussion, but not as explicit as concepts such as keeping warming below a certain level or returning warming to a certain level at a certain time. Generally speaking, it is fairly well accepted that pathways that assess certain warming targets should achieve those targets with probability or greater probability. Few people claim that a precise warming target should be achieved with only a 50% chance (throwing a coin). IPCC SR1.5 also assesses other pathways that lead to higher rates of warming, including pathways that maintain warming below 2°C with a 66% probability and do not return to 1.5°C. IPCC SR1.5 provides an assessment of these pathways for comparison and consistency with mitigation trajectories consistent with 1.5°C.
IPCC SR1.5 is also very clear about the increase in climate risks between 1.5°C and 2°C, which refers to the clause in the Paris Agreement LTTG, which recognises that warming is kept well below 2°C and limited to 1.5°C to significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change. Anxious to „significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change,“ the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while striving to limit the increase in temperatures to 1.5 degrees. It also calls on countries to work to ensure that global greenhouse gas emissions are offset as quickly as possible and become climate neutral by the second half of this century at the latest. To achieve these targets, 186 countries responsible for more than 90% of global emissions presented carbon reduction targets known as „Planned National Contributions“ (INDCs) ahead of the Paris conference. . . .
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