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A General Agreement Of Various Groups

The commitments contained in the GATS can be divided into two broad groups: general obligations applicable to all members and services sectors and obligations that apply only to sectors on a member`s schedule of commitments. These obligations are set out in individual schedules, the scope of which can vary considerably from one member to another. The relevant terms and conditions are similar, but not necessarily identical to, those used in gatt; For example, domestic treatment is a general obligation in trade in goods and cannot be negotiated as under the GATS. Most-favoured-nation: Under Article II of the GATS, members are required to extend immediately and unconditionally to services or service suppliers of all other members „which are no less favourable than the treatment accorded to similar services and service suppliers of another country“. This is in principle a prohibition of preferential regimes between groups of members in certain sectors or reciprocal measures that limit access to benefits to trading partners that grant similar treatment. While gatt was a set of rules agreed upon by nations, the WTO is an intergovernmental organization with its own headquarters and staff, and its scope encompasses trade in goods, trade in services and intellectual property rights. Although intended to serve as multilateral agreements, plurilateral agreements have resulted in selective trade and fragmentation of members in several rounds of GATT negotiations (notably Tokyo). WTO agreements are generally a multilateral GATT resolution mechanism. [24] In the end, the result was an average tariff reduction of 35%, with the exception of textiles, chemicals, steel and other sensitive products; plus a reduction in tariffs on agri-food products from 15% to 18%. In addition, the negotiations on chemicals resulted in a provisional agreement on the abolition of the US selling price (ASP). This was a method of valuation of certain chemicals used by these countries for the imposition of import duties, which allowed domestic producers to benefit from a much higher level of protection than that indicated in the customs regulations.

For the most part, agriculture has been excluded from previous agreements, as it has been granted special status in the areas of import quotas and export subsidies, with slight reservations. However, at the time of the Uruguay Round, many countries felt that the exception for agriculture was so blatant that they refused to sign a new agreement without agricultural products without movement. These fourteen countries were known as the „Cairns Group“ and consisted mainly of small and medium-medium-largest agricultural exporters such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia and New Zealand. No no. Sectoral negotiations result in new specific commitments and/or the most important revenues for the sector concerned. .

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